President Obama was able to formally integrate the United States into the international agreement through executive measures, as he did not impose new legal obligations on the country. The United States already has a number of instruments in its books, in line with laws already passed by Congress, to reduce carbon pollution. The country formally acceded to the agreement in September 2016, after presenting its proposal for participation. The Paris Agreement can only enter into force if at least 55 countries representing at least 55% of global emissions have formally acceded to it. This was done on October 5, 2016 and the agreement entered into force 30 days later on November 4, 2016. The Kyoto Protocol, a pioneering environmental agreement adopted at COP3 in Japan in 1997, is the first time that nations have agreed on legal country-specific emission reduction targets. The protocol, which only entered into force in 2005, set binding emission reduction targets only for industrialized countries, arguing that they were responsible for most of the world`s high greenhouse gas emissions. The United States initially signed the agreement, but never ratified it; President George W. Bush argued that the deal would hurt the U.S.
economy because developing countries like China and India would not be involved. Without the participation of these three countries, the effectiveness of the treaty has proven to be limited, as its objectives cover only a small fraction of total global emissions. The Paris Agreement is the world`s first comprehensive climate agreement.  The Paris Agreement is a pioneering environmental agreement that was adopted by almost all nations in 2015 to combat climate change and its negative effects. The agreement aims to significantly reduce global greenhouse gas emissions in order to limit the increase in global temperature to 2 degrees Celsius above pre-industrial levels this century, while pursuing ways to limit the increase to 1.5 degrees. The agreement includes a commitment by all major emitting countries to reduce their climate pollution and strengthen these commitments over time. The compact provides a way for developed countries to assist developing countries in their climate change and adaptation efforts and establishes a framework for transparent monitoring, reporting and strengthening of countries` individual and collective climate objectives. . . .